Grazing livestock benefit upland biodiversity by creating habitats for wild species such as lapwings. Fraser et al (2014) concluded that grazing systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. Furthermore, this study has demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a ‘win-win’ solution for farmers and conservationists (Fraser, Moorby, Vale, & Evans, 2014).
A summary of research outputs from the Scottish Government’s ‘Environment – Land Use and Rural Stewardship’ Research Programme found that marked falls in sheep numbers and grazing systems have led to fears that subsequent under-grazing might lead to changes in vegetation and the loss of particular habitats and thereby impact adversely on a large number of upland habitats and species of nature conservation concern (Pakeman, 2011). This further substantiates how grazing livestock increases the biodiversity of species by aiding in the creation of suitable habitats.Grazing livestock can promote soil health to increase biodiversity by focusing more on how the food is produced. For example, the ruminants (e.g. sheep and cows) are 100% pasture-fed. In lowland situations they’re integrated with arable farming, in upland or highland situations they’re managed in a way to support biodiversity and wildlife, be that integration with trees, or conservation grazing. The grazing animals have access to a diverse pasture and are managed in a way that mimics their natural behaviour in the wild, such as mob grazing (Heffron, 2016).
https://www.hutton.ac.uk/sites/default/files/files/publications/biodiversity%20%26%20farming.pdf, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089054, https://medium.com/@AlexHeffron88/its-not-what-you-eat-it-s-how-it-s-produced-that-matters-8b61d0618a52
Grazing and Iconic Countryside
The lands ruminants (e.g. sheep and cows) graze on contain large stores of carbon, and crucially, that the animals’ grazing actions actually stimulate the sequestration of carbon in soils. What is more, the nitrogen in their manure can substitute for energy intensive synthetic fertiliser inputs, also leading to avoided emissions. As to the methane these animals emit, a distinction should be made between the climatic effects of this potent but short-lived gas and the permanent impacts of fossil fuel-generated carbon dioxide. In any case wild herbivores also produce methane; farmed ruminants simply substitute for the vast numbers that used to roam the planet and that we have hunted to extinction. In fact, a move away from grass-based ruminant production could – the argument continues – actually make climatic matters worse rather than better, since a global shift towards diets rich in commodity oils, grains, sugars and the pig and poultry products whose production depends on arable crops will cause pastures to be ploughed up, leading to soil carbon and biodiversity losses. In other words, grass-fed beef – the argument runs – is not just good, but essential to a low emitting sustainable food system. Grasslands have enormous potential for storing carbon (C) in the soil. Carbon sequestration improves soil health, makes soils more resilient to extreme weather events, contributes to climate change mitigation and can benefit pasture quality. In sustainable livestock grazing systems, the key challenge is to find the best type of management to combine animal production with soil ecosystem services such as carbon storage, nutrient cycling and biodiversity.
Britain’s hills and upland areas are some of the most beautiful in the world, with elevated areas of dramatic features such as hills, moors, valleys and mountains. Not only do they provide us with iconic landscapes, they also play a crucial role in producing high quality, safe and sustainable food for the nation – through the grazing of cattle and sheep – on land that could otherwise not be used for other means of food production.
Moderate grazing by both sheep and cattle supports:• diverse swards (areas of short grass) – which benefit many kinds of insects, plants and ground nesting birds• patches of short vegetation – which form good breeding sites for waders like lapwing, redshank and golden plover• areas of tall herbs – favoured by species like curlew• abundant populations of insects – which feed on cattle dung• scavenging birds – which feed on carrion
Manure as a Natural Fertiliser
Lack of soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the most common deficiencies in degraded soils, and SOM is the main indicator of soil quality and health (Lehman et al., 2015). The presence of sufficient SOM supports crop production and ecosystem stability by improving water and nutrient retention, nutrient cycling, carbon transformation, soil biodiversity, soil structure and soil aggregation (Wolf and Snyder, 2003). As also stated by the recent FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Sustainable Soil Management (VGSSM), the adoption of agricultural practices that build and retain SOM are therefore an important pillar of sustainable crop production (FAO, 2017a). The supply of manure to agricultural soils is an ancient practice and a well-tested strategy to increase SOM, replenish basic plant nutrients, improve yield response to fertilizers and to restore soil productivity in degraded areas (Rufino et al., 2007; Schröder, 2005; Bogaard et al., 2013; Nezomba et al., 2015).
Suitability of Land
Livestock Farming & Greenhouse Emissions
Almost half of all agricultural emissions (47%) are due to enteric fermentation arising from the digestive process of cattle and sheep. Agricultural soils accounts for a further 24% of emissions, 16% from managing waste and manure, and a further 10% from the running of stationary and mobile machinery. These shares have been almost constant since 1990.https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/reducing-uk-emissions-2018-progress-report-to-parliament/, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/679334/2016_Final_Emissions_Statistics_one_page_summary.pdf
Animal WelfareQMS Animal Welfare and Wellbeing Charter recognises the five freedoms of animal welfare and wellbeing and is a guiding principle for all QMS assurance schemes, which are supported and approved by the Scottish SPCA, Scotland’s independent animal welfare charity. The Charter also reflects the importance of animal welfare to the long-term growth of red meat production in Scotland and consumers’ growing expectation of high standards of animal welfare. It contains a number of key guiding principles including: the encouragement of good animal welfare practices; collaboration between QMS and statutory agencies responsible for animal welfare, avoiding any conflict of interest; and the adoption of a practical approach to animal welfare (focusing on management regimes, stock husbandry and animal behaviour). The guiding principles of the Charter are embedded in all QMS Quality Assurance Schemes and activities, ensuring existing high standards of welfare in the production of red meat industry in Scotland – from farm to processor.
The Scottish SPCA strives to educate consumers to make informed animal welfare decisions regarding the products they buy and encourages members of the public to be aware of the source of any animal product that they purchase. We recommend that members of the public purchase produce that is supplied through a recognised, independently monitored, quality assurance scheme. Produce should not be purchased from countries which do not have the equivalent UK welfare standards. The Scottish SPCA already works closely with QMS (Quality Meat Scotland) and Acoura by carrying out joint inspections with QMS approved livestock farms and supports their assurance schemes in particular with regards to the pig industry.
https://www.gov.scot/publications/animal-health-welfare-livestock-industry-strategy-2016-2021/, https://www.qmscotland.co.uk/health-and-welfare, https://www.qmscotland.co.uk/sites/default/files/QMS%20Animal%20Welfare%20Wellbeing%20Charter%20(March%202015).pdf
Red Meat and Human Health
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26643369, http://meatandhealth.redmeatinfo.com/red-meat-and-health-the-facts/red-meat-and-nutrition.aspx, https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/meat-nutrition/, https://www.intechopen.com/books/meat-science-and-nutrition/nutritional-composition-of-meat, http://meatandhealth.redmeatinfo.com/red-meat-and-health-the-facts/red-meat-and-nutrition.aspx, https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/meat-nutrition/, https://www.intechopen.com/books/meat-science-and-nutrition/nutritional-composition-of-meat
Scottish Government input-output tables summarising output, income and employment multipliers (Type 1) show an employment multiplier for Agriculture of 1.3 in 2015 and for meat process an employment multiplier of 2.3. The same data source but showing type 2 multipliers show agriculture employment multiplier of 1.5 and meat processing of 2.7.
Personal communications with Scottish Government for deeper analysis of the number of people working on farms (collected from the annual June agricultural census) with cattle, sheep or pigs present showed a total employment of 43,230. Applying type one multipliers to this then suggest that the cattle, sheep and pig sector lifts employment to 56,200 and using the wider type 2 multiplier pushes this out to 64,845. Our annual survey of the primary meat processing sector shows employment of approx. 3,000 which when the multiplier is applied lifts to 6,900 under type 1 and 8,100 under type 2. This would support a statement that in excess of 50,000 people in the Scottish economy have some dependence on the cattle sheep and pig sector for their employment. Converting on farm employment to full time equivalent on the basis of standard labour requirements indicates that FTE of staff on farms involved in beef, sheep and pigs would be 26,180; applying the type one multiplier to this gives an employment of 34,300 (ref an assessment of the economic contribution of Scotland’s red meat supply chain – QMS 2016).
While this is based on full time equivalents it must be recognised that most farms with cattle, sheep and pigs also have other agricultural enterprise and the people employed on farms work in other agricultural sectors like arable crop production. Combining these two assessments suggest that the red meat sector of the Scottish Economy generates a total employment of between 34,000 and 64,000. The lower estimate being Full time equivalents and the upper estimate total people with some work generated by cattle sheep and pig production and processing. In 2018 the output of the production of animals for meat production (i.e. excluding milk production) is £1.21bn (ref Red Meat Industry Profile 2019 Edition – QMS 2019) and applying an output multiplier (from Scottish government from 2015 see above) of 1.4 (type 1) and 1.6 (type) then puts the output of the red meat sector lies between £1.7bn and £1.93. Average agricultural output over the past three years has been £1.18 so broadly £1.2bn and using multipliers converts to £1.7 to £1.9bn for average over past three years.https://www.intechopen.com/books/meat-science-and-nutrition/nutritional-composition-of-meat, https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Economy/Input-Output/Downloads/IO1998-2015L2
BibliographyFraser, M. D., Moorby, J. M., Vale, J. E., & Evans, D. M. (2014). Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production. Plos.Pakeman, R. (2011). Biodiversity and Farming: A summary of research outputs from the Scottish Government’s ‘Environment – Land Use and Rural Stewardship’ Research Programme. Aberdeen: Macaulay Land Use Research Institute.